The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the Mediterranea (Council Regulation EC No. 1626/1994, as amended by Council Regulation EC No. 1967/2006), prohibits trawling on marine angiosperm seagrasses.
In the Valencian Community (Order of 23 January 1992) the regulations protect the angiosperm marine seagrasses, prohibit their destruction and regulate human activity.
In Catalonia (Order 91.210.098, DOGC No. 1479 of 12 August 1991) all marine phanerogams of the territory are proclaimed protected.
The Habitats Directive of the European Union (92/43 EEC of 21/05/1992), and the adaptation with the Directive 97/62/EC of 27 October 1997. In the annex I the posidonia is represented as a priority habitat for conservation and of community interest: “Habitat 1120” (Posidonia oceanica meadows).
The Natura 2000 Network at the marine level has declared Sites of Community Importance (SCI), with Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) to protect species and habitats, such as marine angiosperm seagrasses.
The Royal Decree of 7 December 1995 (BOE No. 310, of 28 December 1995) of Spain contains the adaptation of the Habitats Directive to the Spanish State, in which seagrasses are considered as systems to be conserved and protection measures are determined.
In Spain 75% of the extension of marine angiosperm seagrasses (not only Posidonia oceanica) are found in marine protected areas, a percentage that may be higher if we consider artificial reefs.
The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) aims to achieve the “good ecological potential” and the “good chemical status” of water bodies.
The Framework Directive of the Marine Strategy (2008/56/EC) is intended to achieve the “good environmental status” of marine ecosystems by the year 2021.
Law 42/2007 on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity, to preserve biological and genetic diversity in Spain and stop its loss. Royal Decree 139/2011 included Posidonia oceanica in the List of Wild Species in Regime of Special Protection.
The Barcelona Convention or Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean, 1975. Annex II includes Posidonia oceanica among the endangered or threatened species (Decision IG.20/5).
The Berne Convention, 1979. Annex I (Council Decision 82/72/EEC, of 3 December 1981, of the Convention concerning the conservation of wildlife and the natural environment of Europe) considers Posidonia oceanica as strictly protected flora.
The Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources indicates that Posidonia oceanica could be classified as an “Almost Threatened” species.
The national legislation of France (Arrêté du 19/07/1988) considers Posidonia oceanica as a protected species.